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Pulsar TWAMM Protocol

Welcome to the Pulsar Protocol docs.

These pages contain conceptual and technical documentation of the Pulsar Protocol, which includes the innovative Time-Weighted Average Market Maker (TWAMM). If you are new to Pulsar, it is recommended that you first check out the Protocol Overview.

Time-Weighted Average Market Maker (TWAMM) is a new on-chain automated market making model designed by Paradigm Research Partners Dave White, Dan Robinson and Uniswap founder Hayden Adams. TWAMM allows market participants to efficiently execute large orders on multiple blocks of Ethereum and works by breaking long-term large orders down into an infinite number of infinitely small virtual orders, and executing transactions smoothly over time using an embedded AMM.

The detailed design principles of the TWAMM can be found at the Paradigm official website:, and the mathematical principles involved in TWAMM swap can be found in this article:

Pulsar-TWAMM is the first implementation of TWAMM that effectively combines embedded AMM, Long Term Orders, Order Pool and Scalable Reward Distribution to enable not only Instant Swap, but also Term Swap like algorithmic trading TWAP. Compared to AMM, TWAMM reduces the price slippage associated with large trades, thus reducing trader losses.

Developer Links#

The Pulsar protocol smart contacts core repository.

Inspired by: